First, consider Qantas Flight 72, an Airbus A330-303 on its way to Perth from Singapore that suddenly pitched downward, flinging around passengers in the cabin and injuring over 100. Why? Because, a chip supplied faulty air data despite the fact the data computation was triplicated as means of fault-tolerance. Industry insiders say the concern of faults in chips is growing. Consider the 45-minute power outage at CSC’s Maidstone datacentre, and problems restarting systems, which left 80 hospital trusts using paper systems when backup technology did not initially work. CSC took a penalty of GBP 8.5 million for that event. Consider Canadian-based St. Jude Medical that issued an advisory to doctors, warning that changes to the memory of its ‘pacemakers’ caused by radiation could cause excessive drain on the unit’s battery. System engineers experience higher demand for smaller, faster and safer systems, but smaller transistor sizes among others drives up the level of faults due to process variability and otherwise non-threatening radiation on Earth.